Cosmetic products 1. Introduction Cosmetic products are very important in human life due to the improvement of the living standards. And by bringing the products to potential customers, cosmetic advertisements are quite popular in all means of media. Actually, cosmetic advertisers bring the products to customers in different ways which depend mostly on who the customers are. In other words, they design different advertisements of the same product to target different groups of viewers, namely men and women. The differences among such advertisements motivate me to do a small-scaled research on one of the factors that lead to such different features: the languages used in those advertisements. In more details, this essay aims to examine if any gender-based linguistic differences can be utilized in cosmetic advertisements with the purpose of targeting and influencing viewers of different genders by answering the following research questions: Why do advertisers need more than one advertisement for ONE same product? Is language one of the most important differences (among other differences like characters, language, other advertising techniques â€¦) between the two kinds of advertisements? Then why and how important is it in making such difference? 2.Theoretical background In this section, a general view of advertising and gender differences will be introduced in order to provide a basic background to answer the very first research question before the main focus of the essay is discussed about further details of language use in advertisements. A special attention is paid on the theory of gender differences in language use in advertisements, which will be examined in seven different advertisements for Clear Shampoo in the later part of the essay. 2.1. An overview of advertising Nowadays, businesses and manufacturers are actually aware of the great importance of advertising their products or services since a successful advertisement can bring them great profits whereas an unfortunate commercial can lead them to bankruptcy (Sadek-Endrawes, 2008). Thus, businesses and manufactures always try their best to find out ways to design the best advertisements for their products and services with the utilization of effective techniques. Those techniques then are used as tools to attract attention, â€œengage minds, trigger emotions and change what people thinkâ€ (adcracker.com a famous website for tips, tools and techniques to create world-class advertising ideas). Among them are special metaphors (a symbolic representation for the product), promises of benefit or problem solving, offers of free samples, features of human-like and life-like, features of â€œeye candyâ€, etc. Writers from adcracker.com also believe that it might be useful to choose or create their own characters who are put in some special situations, for example conflicts, which can be exaggerated. But the most and foremost important techniques that all advertisement designers need to know are the techniques of choosing the target viewers and language wisely and correspondingly. That is the reason why there are sometimes more than one advertisements designed for only one single product. 2.1.1. Language use as a powerful advertising technique It is obvious that language plays a vital role in the society in general and in everyones life in particular. We use language of all kinds every day, if it is not to say, every moment to communicate with other people, to get ourselves and our own opinions expressed and vice versa to get the same things from others (Gyllgard, 2006). Mastering that communicative power of language, sensible advertisers seem to always try their best to utilize language as a powerful tool to influence the viewers. More specifically, they often try to use language quite distinctively in order to catch viewers attention (adcracker.com). For example, they sometimes play with words, use them out of context, and create new ones in order to help viewers remember a certain brand. Sometimes, those words become the famous slogan for the brand like Moving Forward for Toyota cars or Malaysia Truly Asia for Tourism in Malaysia. Language in advertisements is also used as internationalized (Sadek-Endrawes, 2008), which is expected to be beneficial in order to create same response from viewers of different countries in case the product comes into the global market. Another observation which is recorded by French researchers about language use in advertisements is that 50 percent of all words are supposed to be nouns and verbs. In conclusion, with the wise choice of language, advertisers can make outstanding effects on advertisement viewers. 2.1.2. Viewers targeted as an influential advertising technique Most advertisers know that advertising techniques have persuasive energy and that the strength of such persuasive energy is measured in several ways, but most importantly in relation to a target audience (adkracker.com). It is explained by adcracker.com that different target audience have different lifestyles, different attitudes, different feelings and emotions, which is consequently resulted in different behaviors. Thus, successful advertisers are often sensible in building adverts that can get people to take action or plant a belief in the minds of their prospective buyers by closely associating their adverts with the targeted viewers. It is also agreed by itvdictionary.com that the â€œpersonalizationâ€ to a group of target audience can lead to â€œgreater awarenessâ€. More specifically, in a ChoiceStream survey, they noted that 38% of respondents say that they are more willing to pay attention pay attention to such individually focused advertising. 2.2. An overview of gender difference 2.2.1. Gender difference in general Men and women are different in various aspects which can mainly be categorized into biological and social factors. Consequently, different terms are coined to show such differences, for example â€œsexâ€ and â€œgenderâ€. Sex is defined by Eckert and McConnell-Ginnet (2003:10) as a â€œbiological categorizationâ€ which is based primarily on â€œreproductive potentialâ€ and â€œgenderâ€ is the â€œsocial elaborationâ€ of biological sex. This means that â€œsexâ€ is something fixed before birth (Thomas, 2004) with while â€œgenderâ€ is something that the social life shapes on us continuously in every pace of our life (Graddol and Swann, 1994:8). And it is believed and proved by many researches (Coates, 1993; Tannen, 1993; and Trudgill, 2000) that gender has a major influence on language use by a process named â€œsocializationâ€ (Tannen 1993:84) 2.2.2. Gender difference in language use As afore-mentioned, language is an important part of an individuals life which helps to form his/ her â€œsocial identityâ€ (Gyllgard, 2006:1) by different â€œlinguistic habitsâ€ which reflect different â€œindividual biographies and experiencesâ€ (Graddol and Swann, 1994:5). Coates (1993:144) also claims that â€œwhen children adopt linguistic behavior considered appropriate to their gender they perpetuate the social order which creates gender distinctionsâ€ This means that language is among the most significant factors, bedsides social roles and social positions, that make great distinctions between men and women. Actually, it is observed that men and women use language differently in a â€œgender-appropriateâ€ manner (Tannen, 1993:85) since they are small. In the following part of the paper, that different use of language by different genders will be discussed in three main aspects: (1) topic choices, (2) word choices and (3) manner of speaking Topic choices In terms of topic choices, men are believed to talk more about sports or other physical activities when they are small (Poynton, 1989) and about current concerns, about their strength and their dominance (Coulmas, 2005) when they grow up. Meanwhile, women are believed to spend time talking more on home activities, romance and fantasy worlds. Later in their life, they are considered to choose to talk about â€œnonsenseâ€ and â€œunimportantâ€ personal topics (Gyllgard, 2006). Consequently, mens language is often considered as serious and important while womens is seen as trivial and easy to ignore (Coates, 1993). Word choices It is believed that women seem to be more careful about choosing words than men. And it is explained that this results from the different roles of the two genders in the society. Women are considered to have their first and foremost roles as caring the families and bringing up children. Consequently, they need to be careful with the words they use or otherwise they may set bad examples for their children. Also regarding word choices, in their works (Poyton, 1989 and Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 2003), researchers find that women use more intensifies (such as so and very), words of approximation (such as about and around), or inessential qualifiers (like really or so) than men. Women are also claimed to use more adjectives (including â€œemptyâ€ adjectives like cute and evaluative adjectives like wonderful) and adverbs. Furthermore, hedges and tag questions are found more in women language rather than mens in order to require confirmation or signal uncertainty respectively (Lakoff, 1989). Manner of speaking With the same reasons of different social roles, in terms of manner of speaking, women seem to be more polite in speaking. Therefore, it seems that taboo language like slang or swear words are likely to be created and used by men rather than by women (Poyton, 1989). Lakoff (1989) also agrees with this by giving an example that women choose to use weaker expletives like oh dear or goodness instead of words like shit or damn. Meanwhile, Coates (1993) believes that the language used by women is collaboration-oriented with supportive comments to create and maintain relationship of â€œclosenessâ€ and â€œequalityâ€ while that used by men is competition-oriented in order to assert their positions of dominance. There are differences between men and womens language in other aspects, however, due to the limit of this essay, only three above-mentioned are chosen to be discussed in this section and to be examined in the later one. 3. Methodology and Data This study focuses on the difference between the languages used by men and women in different advertisements for one same product, namely Clear Shampoo, a very popular shampoo in Vietnam. Secondly, it will test whether the advertisers are successful in utilizing the difference between men and women language in order to target viewers of different genders by checking whether viewers of different genders can recognize which advertisement is for them or not. First of all, English versions of seven Clear Shampoo advertisements are selected to be the data for analyzing and those advertisements are chosen for several reasons. Firstly, shampoo is now an essential cosmetic product that people, regardless of their age, their social or financial status and certainly their gender, have to use in their daily life. Thus, it is worthwhile to investigate the advertisements of such product. Secondly, it is found that there are several different advertisements of Clear Shampoo on television as well as on Youtube at the same time and it is presumed by the author that it may result from the advertisers purpose of targeting viewers of different genders. Consequently, with the help of Google search and Youtube website, seven advertisements of Clear Shampoo are collected and transcribed in the appendices of this essay for being analyzed. Differences among those advertisements will then be figured out by checking the above-mentioned theory and later used to group the seven advertisements into 3 groups: for men, for women and for both men and women. To make the research more reliable, the seven selected advertisements for Clear Shampoo are shown to 20 viewers of both genders who are non-native speakers of English but gain sufficient proficiency to understand the advertisements. Actually, they are Vietnamese teachers of English and students of some M.A. programs for English Linguistics or English Teaching Methodology. The viewers are asked to watch the seven advertisements and answer four following questions: Who does each advertisement target, men or women? What features of the advertisement tell you about its target viewers? Does language used in the advertisement one of those features? How does language tell you about the target viewers? 4. Data analysis and results The results of the interviews surprise the author when most of interviewees, after answering the first two questions, claim the features that inform them about the target viewers of the advertisements are mainly the models and images of the ads. Most of them only pay attention to the language of the advertisement after the third question.Â However, they all realize the difference in the language used in the adverts and agree that the language used in adverts by men and women partly tell us about the target viewers. Thus, firstly, this section presents the gender differences in language used in seven Clear Shampoo advertisements which are grouped in differences in (1) choice of topic, (2) choice of word and (3) manner of speaking. Such differences are resulted from the data analysis which is based on the above-mentioned background and the opinions of the interviewees. 4.1 Choice of topic It is revealed by the advertisement analysis that male models talk about their confidence and show their strength as well as their dominance to others by facing the problems: â€¦ Black is confidentâ€¦. Confidence means no dandruff. (Appendix 1) â€¦ Face it. â€¦ Cover it. â€¦ I deal with dandruff like man. (Appendix 4) or â€¦Rage. Rage against her breath of fear. (Appendix 5) Meanwhile, female models talk about beautyas in: â€¦ some beauty shampoos(Appendix 3) about their daily activities such as â€œcombingâ€ in appendix 3 or about their emotion and their perception as in: â€¦ I love my hair. â€¦ Im convinced. (Appendix 2) â€¦ Convinced. I am. (Appendix 3) They also mention one fact that they often try to avoid the troubles they encounter: â€¦ Hide itâ€¦ Cover itâ€¦ I keep it secret as any woman should. (Appendix 4) 4.2 Choice of words 4.2.1 Verb choice As male models choose to talk about their confidence, their strength as well as their dominance, they use words that help to express perfectly what they mean. Actually, they use strong verbs as â€œbreathâ€, â€œmoveâ€ and â€œsweatâ€ in appendix 1 or â€œfaceâ€, â€œsolveâ€, and â€œdeal withâ€ in appendix 4 or verbs that show their activeness as in â€¦ I trust Clear. (Appendix 1) The verbs spoken by male voiceovers also have the same feature: â€œremoveâ€ and â€œpreventâ€ the dandruff (appendix 5), or make the dandruff â€œgo awayâ€ and â€œstay awayâ€ (appendix 7) so that â€œits all settledâ€ (appendix 4). All those verbs bring to the audience the active position of the speakers, and thus, reveal their dominant positions. On the other hand, the verbs used by female models are quite different when they seem to display the defensive positions of the women â€¦ Im convinced. (Appendix 2) â€¦ Convinced. I am. (Appendix 3) or their avoidance solutions for dandruff by hiding it, covering it or keeping it secret (appendix 4). 4.2.2 Adjective choice As their concerns are different, female and male models choose different adjectives when they speak about their hair. For example, most male models and voiceovers use â€œblackâ€ to talk about their hair or the hair they want to have: â€¦ I like black. Black is confident. Black looks good. (Appendix 1) â€¦ From black into darkness â€¦ and into the dark, the icy blackness follows. (Appendix 5) â€¦ the seduction of black, the temptation of black. Its the closeness of black that you can only haveâ€¦ Be black. (Appendix 6) At the same time, female models talk about the features of â€œsoftâ€, â€œcleanâ€ and â€œbeautifulâ€ which are just suitable to describe female hair. â€¦ Clear makes my hair soft and beautifulâ€¦.Just soft hair. (Appendix 2) â€¦ Can your shampoo leave your hair soft and clean â€¦ Clear takes it soft. â€¦Just soft hair. (Appendix 3) 4.3 Manner of speaking The last but not least feature that 20 viewers and the author realize as the difference between the two genders is the way they speak. Female models talk with a collaborative orientation. They talk as if they want to share their experience with the audience whereas male models and voiceovers try to assert their positions of dominance by a competitive orientation. They talk about their dealing with dandruff (appendix 4), the collision of â€œsparksâ€ and dandruff (appendix 5), their black â€œseductionâ€ and â€œtemptationâ€ when they are dandruff free (appendix 6). The tendency of dominance is also expressed by their short imperative sentences which can be found more frequently in male models or voiceovers speech: â€¦ Face it â€¦ Solve it (Appendix 4) â€¦ Rage, rage against her breath of fear. (Appendix 5) â€¦ Make the season more seductive. Make it a Clear Black Valentines. Be board. Be Black. Move closer anytime. Have Clear Black Valentines. (Appendix 6) The first advertisement with the male model, Bi Rain, also offers another feature of male speech. That is the logic in thinking and speaking: â€¦ Black is confident. Black looks good. Looking good means no dandruff. Confidence means no dandruff. Clear means no dandruff. With his logical speech, Bi Rain tries to convince the audience the close relationship among Clear, black, confident and looking good. And he seems successful with my interviewees. All in all, from the above analysis of the language used in seven adverts, it comes to a conclusion that advertisement No 1, 5 and 6 are targeted at men (although by what the author and the interviewees get from the adverts, 5 and 6 target at both men and women); advertisement No 2 and 3 are for women and the rest are targeted at both men and women. 5. Conclusion It can be seen from the results that the female language and male language used in seven Clear Shampoo advertisements follow tightly the theory that are presented in other researches on gender differences in language. However, the interviews with Vietnamese viewers who are non-native speakers of English reveal that what lead such viewers to the conclusion of target audience are not the language but the models and the images of the advertisements. The study also come to another conclusion that the advertisers, who are expected to pay attention to the language of advertising, an effective tool of persuasion, do not actually do so. And the results are the wrong target of the two advertisements number 5 and 6, which advertisers tend to target at both men and women (which can be understood by the images of â€œwhite Clearâ€ for women and â€œblack Clearâ€ for men) but actually target only at men if only language of the advertisements is analyzed.
Marla is a 42-year-old Hispanic female who comes to the mental health clinic complaining of having trouble sleeping, feeling â€œjumpy all of the time,â€ and experiencing an inability to concentrate. These symptoms are causing problems for her at work, where she is an accountant. Resources: Appendix A, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, and the Faces of Abnormal Psychology Interactive application at the McGraw Hill Higher Education Web site Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper analyzing Marlaâ€™s disorder. Address the following:Decide which disorder Marla may have using the information in the Faces of Abnormal Psychology Interactive Application at http://www. mhhe. com/socscience/psychology/faces/#. The profile introduction will match more than one of the disorders found in the application. You must choose one of the disorders and complete the profile. Include the 10 question from the week Four CheckPoint. Summarize the disorder using the information provided in the interactive application. Explain the origin of the disorder and any potential treatments by using one of the models of abnormality found in Ch. of Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. * * 1. Tell me some basic information about yourselfâ€¦ Name, age,etc Marla, 42 Hispanic female 2. What brings you in to see me? Having trouble sleeping, feeling jumpy, lack of concentration, affecting her accountant job 3. Why do you feel that you need a clinical interview? For the larger part of her life she has been fighting depression, suicide thoughts, 2 attempts of suicide, self mutilation period 4. How do you feel most days? Worthless, low, no energy 5. Is there anything that makes you more happy/sad?Shopping, spending money to make she appear nicer, looks 6. How long have you been experiencing these feelings? Most of her life but in the past couple of years it has gotten worse 7. How is your relationship with your parents? Father knows him but has never been around, molestation, â€œshe was never his sonâ€ had son straightened up but Marla wasnâ€™t worth it Mother a drunk in bed at 7, cheated, and raised her by herself and new husband 8. How often do you go out and socialize? Homebody 9. Have you noticed anything specific that triggers your moods?Anything, everything, stupid people, people in general 10. Is there anything else you feel like sharing with me? My life sucks and my wife says that my moods suck and I go from on top of the world to being underneath it in. 1second After meeting with Marla and doing my initial interview with her, where Marla revealed that she has been clinically diagnosed with depression. Marla has much more mental disorders than just depression. She has lived her life trying to be enough for her dad, mom, everybody else in her life. Marla was never taught love, acceptance.I am diagnosing Marla with Bipolar disorder with ADHD with anger tendencies. Marla has a feeling of jumpiness and lacks concentration, which is affecting her accounting job. Marla informed me in our interview that she knows her father but he was never really around. He tried to buy her love and gave her a lot of empty promises. Marlaâ€™s father use to tell her that she was not his son, that he always wanted a son and that she was not. She had animosity towards her father for straightening his life out once his son was born. This left her with feelings of not being enough for his love.Carrying this feeling her entire love grew to anger as an adult. Her father did not matter anymore but that pain she felt as a child she turned into anger. Marlaâ€™s mother raised her but she was a drunk. Her mother married a new husband, showed Marla how to cheat on this man. When that marriage failed lived with another who made fun of Marla for being a lesbian. Her mother cheated on him with who would become her husband now. Marla has periods of mania more often than she is happy. Marla went through more serious and long periods of mania where she went through self mutilation phases.During these times Marla has attempted suicide many times, two times she was hospitalized. When Marla is feeling low, she has realized that she likes to shop to make her appearance appear pricier. I came to my diagnoses of Bipolar with ADHD with severe anger tendencies due to the following facts. ADHDâ€™s symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity). Bipolar Disorder is a condition in which people go back and forth between periods of a very good or irritable mood andÂ depression.The â€œmood swingsâ€ between mania and depression can be very quick. Bipolar individuals go from manic to mania in a split second or in some cases over lap each other. The manic phase may last from days to months. It can include the following symptoms: * Easily distracted * Little need for sleep * Poor judgment * Poor temper control * Reckless behavior and lack of self control * Binge eating, drinking, and/or drug use * Poor judgment * Sex with many partners (promiscuity) * Spending sprees * Very elevated mood * Excess activity (hyperactivity) * Increased energy * Racing thoughts Talking a lot * Very high self-esteem (false beliefs about self or abilities) * Very involved in activities * Very upset (agitated or irritated) These symptoms of mania occur with bipolar disorder I. In people with bipolar disorder II, the symptoms of mania are similar but less intense. The depressed phase of both types of bipolar disorder includes the following symptoms: * Daily low mood or sadness * Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions * Eating problems * Loss of appetite and weight loss * Overeating and weight gain * Fatigue or lack of energy Feeling worthless, hopeless, or guilty * Loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed * Loss of self-esteem * Thoughts of death and suicide * Trouble getting to sleep or sleeping too much * Pulling away from friends or activities that were once enjoyed There is a high risk ofÂ suicideÂ with bipolar disorder. Patients may abuse alcohol or other substances, which can make the symptoms and suicide risk worse. Sometimes the two phases overlap. Manic and depressive symptoms may occur together or quickly one after the other in what is called a mixed state. (http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. ov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001924/) Some individuals may be diagnosed with both ADHD and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately, some are misdiagnosed because the symptoms of the two disorders can overlap or look similar. In mania, individuals may appear distracted, always moving and restless, which may look similar to symptoms of hyperactivity. Also, individuals with ADHD may demonstrate some mood symptoms, but not to the extreme necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. It is important to ensure that an individual meets the criteria for both of the disorders, rather than just demonstrating symptoms that could be construed as both. http://www. livestrong. com/article/252912-adhd-bipolar-disorder-in-adults/). The treatments for these disorders are medications such as, Adderall, and or Vyvance, there are also non stimulant medications such as Strattera. With the stimulation medications most individuals are put on a sleeping agent to bring them down such as Clonodine. Medications for Bipolar can include Abilify, and or Cymbalta. Most Bipolar individuals take an anxiety agent as well. Individuals such as Marla may be prescribed Adderall, Clonodine, Abilify, and Depokote.The disorder ADHD originated in 1902, there is the first documented disorder relating to impulsiveness. This was in Britain, and the doctor who diagnosed the impulsive disorder was named Dr. Still. He called this disorder â€œDefect of Moral Controlâ€ and he believed that the diagnosed individual had a medical disorder beyond their control. (http://ezinearticles. com/? History-of-ADHD&id=217254). Bipolar disorder is perhaps one of the oldest known illnesses. Research reveals some mention of the symptoms in early medical records. It was first noticed as far back as the second century.Aretaeus of Cappadocia (a city in ancient Turkey) first recognized some symptoms of mania and depression, and felt they could be linked to each other. His findings went unnoticed and unsubstantiated until 1650, when a scientist named Richard Burton wrote a book, The Anatomy of Melancholia, which focused specifically on depression. His findings are still used today by many in the mental health field, and he is credited with being the father of depression as a mental illness. (http://www. caregiver. com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history. htm).
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.